Typescript vs JavaScript: Why Choose Typescript Over JavaScript?

Websites are extensively used by companies nowadays. JavaScript is the most popular programming language that all websites use to get rich, dynamic content.

But there is a new language in town – TypeScript. With growing popularity, TypeScript can be considered an enhanced, modern version of JavaScript.

  • Is your JS code hard to understand?
  • Tired of solving errors at compile-time?
  • Want to decrease code complexity and get code organization?

Then you might want to consider TypeScript.

In this blog we have curated a comparison of JavaScript vs TypeScript, to understand the 7 major differences between them. At the end of this blog, you will get to know:

  • Is TypeScript better than JavaScript for web development companies?
  • Should you be shifting your vanilla JavaScript code to TypeScript?

Let’s find out!

Describing Typescript

A TypeScript is an object-oriented, open-source programming language formed and maintained by Microsoft.  It is a severe syntactical superset of JavaScript and augments elective static typing to the language. 

TypeScript (TS) is intended for building large applications and trans-compiles to JavaScript.

TypeScript may be utilized to build JavaScript applications for both server-side and client-side execution. The prevailing JavaScript programs are also valid TypeScript programs. 

There are manifold alternatives available for trans-compilation. Either default TypeScript Checker can be employed or Babel compiler can be entreated to transform TypeScript to JavaScript.

TypeScript supports the files that can include type data of present JavaScript libraries, much like C++ header files can define the construction of current object files. This allows other programs to exercise the values well-defined in files as if they were statically typed TypeScript entities.

There are third-party header files for prevalent libraries like D3.js, jQuery, and MongoDB.  TypeScript headers for Node.js elementary modules are also accessible, permitting the development of Node.js programs within TypeScript.

TypeScript compiler is written in TypeScript and assembled in JavaScript.  It is registered under Apache License 2.0. 

Describing JavaScript

JavaScript, often shortened as JS, is a software design language that follows the ECMAScript arrangement.  JavaScript is just-in-time compiled, high-level, and multi-pattern. 

It contains dynamic typing, curly-bracket syntax, first-class functions, and prototype-based object orientation. Together with CSS and HTML, JavaScript is one of the essential technologies of the World Wide Web.

You can read our blog that compiles a list of the best websites built using JavaScript.

JavaScript empowers interactive website pages and is an indispensable aspect of web applications.  The majority of websites utilize it for client-side web page behaviour, and all chief web browsers have a devoted JavaScript engine to perform it. 

As a multi-paradigm programming language, JavaScript supports imperative styles, event-driven, and functional styles. It has an application programming interface (API) for working out dates, text, standard data structures, Document Object Model (DOM), and regular expressions. 

JavaScript engines were formerly exercised in web browsers only, but they are now inserted in certain servers, customarily via Node.js. There are many derivatives of JavaScript like TypeScript, CoffeeScript, Dart and Kotlin.

These are also implanted in multiple applications formed with frameworks such as Cordova and Electron. 

Typescript vs JavaScript: Head to Head Comparison

When we look at TypeScript and JavaScript, there are many similarities. Both are employed to create interactive web pages.

But in comparing TypeScript vs JavaScript, JavaScript is a lightweight, interpreted, dynamic language for web design. It is utilized in web app development for augmenting HTML web pages. 

In contrast, TypeScript acts as a superset of JavaScript. This states that Typescript is JavaScript + some other traits.

The below table on JavaScript vs Typescript helps us understand the vital differences between these two technologies.

Aspects

Typescript

JavaScript

Definition It is a superset of JavaScript built to overcome code difficulty for large,complex projects. JavaScript is a scripting language that aids in creating robust web page content.
Ecosystem The Ecosystem is intuitive and powerful. Hence, it permits you to statically type varied kinds of idiomatic JavaScript traits like intersection, union types and discriminated union. Javascript provides the option to discover and form code without a build phase.
Data Binding TypeScript utilizes concepts like interfaces and types to define the data being employed. No such notion is presented in JavaScript.
Learning Curve TypeScript has a stiff learning curve. Also, it needs scripting knowledge. It is easy to learn and a flexible language for writing web script.
Npm Packages With Typescript, countless npm packages either have static type definitions or have an exterior one that is simpler to install. Javascript provides the alternative to search and form code without any build step.
Prototyping Support Typescript has a trait of prototyping. JavaScript does not have this trait.
Annotation and Typing To avail the most out of characteristics, TypeScript developers must constantly annotate the code. No annotations are needed for JavaScript.
Compiler required TypeScript code requires to be compiled. No requirement to compile code in JavaScript.
Client-Side or Server-Side TypeScript is specially used on the client-side. JavaScript is used on both server-side and client-side.
File Extensions Used .tsx and .ts .js
Companies and Websites TypeScript is used by Clever, Asana, and Screen award Codecademy, Airbnb, and Instagram utilize JavaScript
Community TypeScript has a smaller community of software developers. JavaScript has a large community of software developers.

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Why Use TypeScript?

Why Use TypeScript?

There are diverse reasons that state what is TypeScript used for. Some of them consist of:

  1. Static Typing

    JavaScript is strongly typed and does not recognize what kind of a variable is until it is essentially instantiated at runtime. TypeScript adds type support to JavaScript.

  2. Employing New Features of ECMAScript

    TypeScript supports novel ECMAScript criteria and trans-pile them to ECMAScript objectives of your choice.  Hence, you can use characteristics of ES2015 and beyond, like lambda, modules, functions, the spread operator, de-structuring, and classes.

  3. Enhanced IDE support

    The development practice with TypeScript is a great enhancement over JavaScript. There is an extensive range of JavaScript IDEs such as Atom, Sublime, Visual Studio Code, and WebStorm that provide outstanding support for TypeScript and JavaScript alike.

  4. Type Inference

    TypeScript creates typing easier and less unambiguous by the practice of type inference. Even if you do not utilize the interface, TypeScript still helps in preventing mistakes that may result in runtime errors.

  5. Interoperability

    TypeScript is strictly associated with JavaScript. Thus, it has good interoperability proficiencies, but some additional work is needed to function with JS libraries in TypeScript.

  6. Strict Null Examination

    Errors, such as cannot read property ‘x’ of undefined, are general in JavaScript software programming. You can evade most of these types of errors as one cannot utilize a variable that is unknown to the TypeScript compiler.

Why Use JavaScript?

Why Use JavaScript?

Today, JavaScript is in demand as it is primarily used for most web browsers and web-based applications.  It is also utilized beyond the web in servers, software, and embedded hardware controls.  Below are certain elementary aspects that state why developing a JavaScript application is preferred-

  1. Fun and Interactive Language

    You have a comprehensive user interface to employ right away.  JavaScript contains a graphical UI that is fun and easy to deploy.  You can write codes that will function in the browser so that you can develop interactive projects early in the learning procedure.

  2. Low Threshold to Get Started

    JavaScript is the programming language that browsers employ.  It is simpler to get started with and to comprehend.  You can get going straight away.  Dissimilar to other languages, you do not have to install a lot of programs before you can even start using JavaScript.

  3. Superior Debugging Tools for Learning

    A collaborative JavaScript interpreter is developed right into the web browser, permitting you to research and get prompt feedback, which aids you to learn more rapidly.

  4. Strong Support for Learning

    Each browser comprises source code viewing characteristics that allow you to learn from other people’s live coding.  Also, JavaScript has the leading and most dynamic repository of library code in the ecosphere.  Individuals in the JavaScript community are very supportive and active in sharing and making utilization of each other’s codes.

  5. Foundational Language for Learning Programming Styles

    JavaScript support for the event-driven software design style, where the movement of your code is organized by system events or user events. 

  6. Rich interfaces

    You can employ JavaScript to contain items such as sliders and drag-and-drop components to offer a rich interface to your website visitors.

When to Choose Javascript and TypeScript?

Choose JavaScript when-

  • Stable testing workflow: 
    Possessing a team that is already applying test-driven development is better than swapping to TypeScript even with all its connected features and costs.
  • Small assignments:  
    Javascript can be considered as a perfect solution for small web projects and smaller teams.
  • Build tools needed: 
    It is popular to utilize JavaScript without the assistance of build tools.
  • Supported framework: 
    Certain frameworks do not support TypeScript. Using existing JavaScript libraries and frameworks, you can develop web applicationns munch faster and streamline your software development process.
  • Additional dependencies: 
    You require the type definitions of JS libraries that you need to utilize in TypeScript. An additional type of definition effects in an added epm package. Hence, using a popular JavaScript library for your development is preferable as it will be properly maintained in future.

Choose TypeScript when-

  • Huge projects or numerous developers: 
    If you possess a huge project that you are operating on or have several developers functioning together, then TypeScript is the best alternative.  The access modifiers and interface of TypeScript can be an additional advantage in communicating API.
  • Functioning with a new framework or library: 
    Use TypeScript if you are starting with a novel project that utilizes React and are not accustomed to its API, then you require to know that they propose type definitions. You can utilize IntelliSense to aid you to navigate through and ascertain novel interfaces.
  • Favor compile-time type checking: 
    Expending plain JavaScript code is tough, especially if you prefer compile-time error checking. With TypeScript, it is completely possible to execute run-time type confirmation and compile-time validation.

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Advantages of TypeScript over JavaScript

Advantages of TypeScript against JavaScript
  • TypeScript has a trait that is strongly-entered or supports static typing. This means static typing permits to check type accuracy at compile time. 
  • TypeScript highlights the compilation errors at the time of development. Due to this, at runtime, the scope of examining errors is very less. On the contrary, JavaScript is an interpreted language.
  • TypeScript is nothing but a JS and some added features, that is, ES6 features.  It may not be kept in your targeted web browser but the TS compiler can compile .ts files into ECMAScript.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why should you use TypeScript?

TypeScript streamlines JavaScript coding, making it simpler to read and debug. TypeScript is open-source and renders extremely productive development tools for JavaScript practices and IDEs, namely static checking. It makes the code easier to read and understand.

How is TypeScript different from JavaScript?

TypeScript is different from JavaScript as the former is recognized as an object-oriented language while the latter is a scripting language. TypeScript facilitates the support for modules but JavaScript does not support the modules. TypeScript has an interface whereas JavaScript does not have any interface.

What is the advantage of TypeScript on JavaScript?

The main advantage of Typescript compared to JavaScript is that it facilitates the capability to augment static types to JavaScript code. Also, TypeScript recognizes the compilation errors in the development phase itself. Owing to this, the possibility of scrutinizing errors is very less at the runtime.


Conclusion

Observing the TypeScript vs JavaScript differences, it can be said that both technologies have their advantages and disadvantages.  

JavaScript may not be a comprehensive coding language, but it is utilized along with HTML to enhance the quality of web pages. Plus there are thousands of experienced developers who code in JavaScript.

TypeScript, on the other hand, is a preferred option for developers who want to produce clean, beautiful code that is compact and readable. Not to mention the various live-error checking and static typing advantages that TypeScript offers.

But, TypeScript is still not native to all web browsers like JavaScript. So when choosing between TypeScript-JavaScript, you can refer to the above guide.

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Author Bio
Jigar Mistry
Jigar Mistry
Designation: CTO - Monocubed

Jigar Mistry is the CTO of Monocubed and is the main curator and writer of the content found on this site. He has 14+ years of experience in the information technology industry. He always believes in quality, in terms of code and application.